Infertility affects approximately 10-15% of reproductive-aged couples.Its overall prevalence has been stable during the past 50 years; however, a shift in etiology and patient age has occurred.As a woman's age increases, the incidence of infertility also increases.

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A complete infertility evaluation is performed according to the woman's menstrual cycle and may take up to 2 menstrual cycles before the etiology is determined.

Obtain the following medical history and information from the couple: Treatment plans are based on the diagnosis, duration of infertility, and the woman's age.

Management of any underlying female and/or male factors affecting fertility may include medical treatment (eg, pharmacotherapy), surgical intervention, or both.

If pregnancy has not been established within a reasonable time, consider further evaluation and/or an alternative treatment plan, such as use of donor oocyte, sperm, or embryo, or the use of a gestational carrier or surrogate mother.

Infertility is the failure to conceive (regardless of cause) after 1 year of unprotected intercourse.

This condition affects approximately 10-15% of reproductive-aged couples.Female factors that affect fertility include the following categories: Infertility is a problem that involves both partners.Diagnostic testing is unnecessary if the couple has not attempted to conceive for at least 1 year, unless the woman is age 35 years or older, or if they have a history of a male factor infertility, endometriosis, a tubal factor, diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, pelvic inflammatory disease, or pelvic surgery.This term should be differentiated from fecundability, which is the probability of achieving a pregnancy each month, and fecundity, which is the ability to achieve a live birth within 1 menstrual cycle.The fecundability rate in the general reproductive-aged population is fairly constant and is approximately 0.22 per month.In societies where family planning and professional career development are prioritized, some women postpone childbearing until their 30s and beyond.